Nationality: Noun and adjective--Liberian(s).
Population (2008): 3.49 million.
Annual growth rate (2008): 2.1%.
Ethnic groups: Kpelle 20%, Bassa 16%, Gio 8%, Kru 7%, 49% spread over 12 other ethnic groups.
Religions: Christian 40%, Muslim 20%, animist 40%.
Languages: English is the official language. There are 16 indigenous languages.
Education: Literacy (2003)--20%.
Health: Life expectancy (2005)--42.5 years.
Work force: Agriculture--70%; industry--15%; services--2%. Employment in the formal sector is estimated at 15%.
Ethnic groups and languages
There are 16 ethnic groups that make up Liberia's indigenous population. There also are sizable numbers of Lebanese, Indians, and other West African nationals who comprise part of Liberia's business community.
The people of Liberia are classified into three major groups:
1. The indigenous people, who are in the majority and who migrated from the western Sudan in the late Middle Ages;
2. Black immigrants from the United States (known historically as Americo-Liberians) and the West Indies;
3. Other black immigrants from neighbouring western African states who came during the anti-slave-trade campaign and European colonial rule. The Americo-Liberians are most closely associated with founding Liberia. Most of them migrated to Liberia between 1820 and 1865; continued migration has been intermittent.
Liberia’s indigenous ethnic groups may be classified into three linguistic groups, all belonging to the Niger-Congo language family: the Mande, Kwa, and Mel (southern Atlantic). The Mande are located in the northwest and central regions of Liberia and also in Senegal, Mali, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Prominent among them are the Vai, who invented their own alphabet and who, in addition, use Arabic and English; theKpelle, the largest Mande group, who are also found in Guinea; Loma (also found in Guinea); Ngbandi; Dan (Gio); Mano; Mende; and Malinke. Kwa-speaking peoples include the Bassa, the largest group in this category and the largest ethnic group in Monrovia; the Kru and Grebo, who were among the earliest converts to Christianity; the De; Belleh (Belle); and Krahn. The Kwa-speaking group occupies the southern half of the country. The Mel group includes the Gola and Kisi, who are also found in Sierra Leone and are known to be the oldest inhabitants of Liberia. These people live in the north and in the coastal region of the northwest.
Up to 16 languages are spoken in Liberia. English is the official language. Predominant languages include Kpelle, Bassa, Grebo, Dan, Kru, Mano, Loma, and Mandingo.